The first monograph to examine the depiction of reading women in French art of the early Third Republic, Women Readers in French Painting 1870-1890 evaluates the pictorial significance of this imagery, its critical reception, and its impact on notions of femininity and social relations. Covering a broad range of paintings, prints, and sculptures, this book shows how the liseuse was subjected to unprecedented levels of pictorial innovation by artists with widely differing aesthetic aims and styles. Depictions of readers are interpreted as contributions to changing notions of public and private life, female agency, and women's participation in cultural and political debates beyond the domestic household. This highly original book explores images of women readers from a range of social classes in both urban and rural settings. Such images are shown to have articulated concerns about the impact of female literacy on labour environments and family life while, in many cases, challenging conventions of gendered reading. Kathryn Brown also presents an alternative way of conceiving of modernity in relation to nineteenth-century art, a methodological departure from much recent art historical literature. Artists discussed range from Manet, Cassatt and Degas, to less familiar figures such as Lavieille, Carriere, Toulmouche and Tissot.
This title features beautiful works of art specially selected to accompany delightful pieces of verse and prose. It includes classic poetry by Chaucer, Shakespeare, Spencer, Tennyson, and Milton, amongst others, as well as anonymous rhymes, folk songs and fairy lore passed down through the centuries. The chapters include Famous Fairies; Fairy Tricks and Good Turns; Fairy Possessions, Feasts and Sports; Fairy Homes; and Fairy Lovers. It is a book that celebrates these elusive creatures, with poetry and tales of their exploits, and evocative pictures which capture their entrancing, fragile charm. It is a beautiful gift anthology to keep or give away. In folklore and tales fairies come in many forms: ethereal queens, beautiful enchantresses; house fairies and woodland sprites, the tiny spirits of flowers and trees; mischievous pixies; elves and nymphs. In whatever form they appear to those who believe in them, fairies are always mysterious, magical and secretive. They live in a curious half-world, which exists in the mists just beyond human perception but is always rooted in nature. In art and literature fairies often appear to the innocent or the lost, to children or questing knights, and they can be found at twilight in woodland glades, inside fairy rings, or on deserted moonlit beaches. This book brings together classic works of art, and much-loved and quoted poetry and prose, to celebrate these elusive creatures and create a celebration of the land of faerie and its inhabitants.
A drama about 1916 Set in 1966. Part of 1916 A Hundred Years On Project by Contemporary Christianity
Painting Restoration Before the Restauration: The Origins of the Profession in France Aby A. Massing The art of painting restoration is almost as old as the art of painting itself. Accidents and time inevitably alter the appearance of a painting, and these changes begin as soon as it leaves the artist's easel. Purposeful alterations due to changes in taste have also contributed to transformations that paintings often underwent. Clearly the type of restoration procedures considered ethically acceptable have changed over the centuries. From the Renaissance until the end of the nineteenth century, European paintings were considered as two-dimensional illusions of a three-dimensional space, and any disruption to this illusion was considered as damage requiring repair. There was no acknowledgement of painting supports as an integral part of a picture; only the paint layer and the subject represented were appreciated. As a result, panels were often thinned and cradled in order to flatten the painted surface so that the image depicted could be viewed with less distraction. Supports were even considered replaceable. Total transfer of a painted surface onto a new surface was an acceptable procedure in the eighteenth century even until the mid-twentieth century. Invisible retouching was used with the intent of returning the illusion of the painted surface to its original state; the history of the work was not important. Until recent times, it was even acceptable to alter the format of a work of art to fit a frame or a space on the wall. Traditionally, if a painting was accidentally damaged or if adjustments were required, a painter was entrusted with this task. In the past, the professions of painter and painting restorer overlapped, and both were trained as apprentices. Gradually the professional painting restorer appeared in Europe, and by the mid-eighteenth century, the profession was established. Earlier examples of professional restorers, especially in Italy, have been recorded while in other European countries, such as Britain, the career of the professional painting restorer began much later. During the later part of the eighteenth century in France, the painting restorers of the French Royal Collection became celebrated throughout Europe for their achievements. The political situation had an important influence on the development of the profession in France. The reigns of Francois I (1515-47), Louis XIV (1643-1715), Louis XVI (1774-93), and then the coup detat by Napoleon Bonaparte and the First Napoleonic Empire (1804-14) led to an increasing centralisation of the French Empire. The arts were meant to reflect the power of the state; thus Louis XIV and his political advisor and Surintendent from 1661 to 1685, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-83), became the patrons of the French Academie de Peinture et Sculpture founded in 1648. A revision of the Academys statutes in 1665 required students to submit annually drawings that focused on the heroic actions of the king. Paintings conferred status on their owner in this instance the king and the French nation. It then became a necessity to have the paintings on display looking their best, and the skill of the French painting restorers was even used as a justification for Napoleons policy of confiscation of works of art from all over Europe. The relationship between the French governments administration, firstly under the Ancien Regime, then under the new Republic, and the painting restorers they employed and supervised is related in this book. The manner in which changes occurred involves colourful personalities whose stories are often amusing and sometimes poignant, but above all they help us to understand the present-day situation. For during the turbulent years of the French Revolution new patterns emerged, which to a large extent remained in place in France for over two centuries.
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